What is Food Chain?


The food chain is a cycle where energy is transferred from one entity to another. The higher the food chain, the greater the energy and food resources are. This process continues through different stages, including Photosynthesis, Secondary consumers, Herbivores, and Trophic levels. Each step of the food chain has its purpose.


Photosynthesis is an essential process in plants and algae that produces chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. Photosynthesis takes place in two ways: in the cellular respiration of plants, allowing them to absorb light and use it to generate energy. In the other direction, the process occurs in cyanobacteria and oceanic algae, which produce enormous amounts of food for the world’s food chain.

Photosynthesis is essential to the food chain since most organic matter on Earth results from organisms converting solar energy into energy-containing macromolecules. The process is also essential to the carbon cycle since cells utilize the energy in sunlight to create food. However, in many food chains, organisms undergoing photosynthesis are at the lowest level.

Secondary consumers

Secondary consumers play a vital role in the food chain. They are responsible for maintaining the balance of trophic levels by ensuring that higher-trophic level organisms can survive and thrive. Without secondary consumers, higher-trophic organisms would go hungry or even become extinct. However, when secondary consumers become overpopulated, they can deplete the energy reserves of higher trophic levels.

There are two main types of secondary consumers in the food chain. The first is carnivorous, which feeds on other animals. The second is omnivorous, which feeds on both plants and meat. Some examples of omnivores are snakes, seals, and skunks. Another category of secondary consumers is scavengers, which eat the remains of other animals.


The food chain consists of herbivores, which eat plants. Large herbivores, such as cows, elk, and buffalo, eat grass, tree bark, aquatic vegetation, and shrubby growth. Smaller herbivores feed on seeds and nuts. These organisms are affected by changes in plant availability.

Herbivores have specialized digestive systems and a unique tooth design. Their flat molars are adapted to rip and grind up plant material.

Trophic levels

In the food chain, energy passes from lower to higher trophic levels. About 10% of the energy used by one organism is converted to biomass, while the rest is lost through movement, respiration, and other biological functions. A pyramid often represents the biomass of each trophic level.

In terrestrial ecosystems, herbivores occupy trophic level two, feeding on green algae and plants. These animals are also further subdivided into grazers and browsers. In aquatic ecosystems, the primary consumers are zooplankton. They are microscopic organisms that feed on plants and algae.

Impacts of man on the web on food chains

The effects of man on the web on the food chain are far more significant than we thought. Humans are the dominant consumers, from agriculture to water pollution, causing habitat destruction and killing plants and animals. We also disrupt food chains through energy production, overfishing, and population growth.

If the producers disappeared, the entire web would collapse. But, then, we would have the opposite scenario: the primary consumers would be unable to feed themselves, and their populations would also drop. Similarly, if the secondary consumers were not able to feed their families, the entire food chain would come to an end.

Types of food chains

There are several different types of food chains. Decomposers, for instance, feed on dead organic matter. This material is then broken down by detritivores, which other animals, in turn, eat. The detritus food chain is essential for energy flow in aquatic ecosystems.

A food chain can also be classified by trophic level. Producers are at the top level, while secondary consumers and decomposers are at the lowest. For example, in the arctic, lichens are the leading food producers that caribou consume. The caribou, in turn, are prey for wolves and humans.

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